Events

 Year

Northumbria

Outside

Northumbria

Bernicia

Deira

 

 

 

 

122

Hadrian’s wall constructed

 

 

325

 

 

Council of Nicaea called by Constantine the Great and first ecumenical council of the Christian church, meeting in ancient Nicaea.. Referred to by Wilfrid at the Synod of Whitby

521

 

 

Birth of Columba

547

Ida first King of Bernicia (547-559)

 

 

559

Death of Ida; son Aethelric becomes King (559-592)

Aelle (559-588) seized Deira from Bernicia

 

563

 

 

Columba formed Monastery at Iona

588

Aethelric seized Deira on death of Aelle; Aelle’s son Edwin banished

 

592

On death of Aethelric, son Aethelfrith rules both kingdoms (592-616). Aethelfrith marries Acha, daughter of Aelle; his brother-in-law Edwin remains banished.

 

596

 

Pope St Gregory I the Great commissioned Augustine to establish a mission in England under the protection of Brunhild

597

 

Death of Columba

597

 

Conversion of King Aethelberht I of Kent to Christianity.

601

 

Roman monk Paulinus sent to England to assist Augustine

614

 

Birth of Hilda to Hereric and Breguswith in exile.

616/7

Edwin kills Aethelfrith in a battle at the river Idle near Leeds and returns to rule both kingdoms (616-632)

Aethelfrith’s sons Eanfrith, Oswold and Oswiu seek refuge in Scotland and brought up at Iona by the Celtic monks

625

Edwin’s first wife had died and he marries Aethelburgh, daughter of the King of Kent who brings with her Paulinus

 

 

Edwin and Aethelburgh have a daughter Eanfled (who is later to marry Oswiu)

 

627

Edwin and a large number of his court including great niece Hilda baptised by Paulinus on 12 April in the river at York.

 

628

Birth of Biscop Baducing (Benedict Biscop)

 

632

Edwin killed in battle against the combined armies of Cadwallon of Gwynedd and King Penda of Mercia. Queen Aethelburgh, her daughter Eanfled (and Hilda?) and Paulinus flee back to Kent.

 

632

Eanfrith seizes power but killed by Cadwallon 633

Osric, son of Aelfric and cousin of Edwin seizes power but killed by Cadwallon 633

 

633

Oswold returns to defeat and kill Cadwallon near Hexham and rules both kingdoms (633-642)

 

633/4

Wilfrid born

 

 

634/5

 

 

Cuthbert born

635

Oswold summons Aidan from Iona to form a monastery at Lindisfarne

 

642

Oswold killed in battle with Penda, King of Mercia at Maserfelth near Oswestry

 

642

Oswiu, brother of Oswold rules Bernicia but subordinate to Penda

Oswin, son of Osric rules Deira as sub-kingdom to Bernicia

 

 

Oswiu marries his cousin Eanfled, daughter of Edwin and Aethelburgh

 

647

 

 

Hilda about to join her widowed sister Heresuid at a French monastery at Chelles and spends a year at the court of her nephew Aldwulf, king of the East Angles preparing for the crossing

648

 

Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, intervenes before Hilda crosses to France and gives her a plot of land south of the Tyne (possibly South Shields) to form a monastery. Hilda stays for one year

 

648

Wilfrid enters Lindisfarne monastery as patron of Queen Eanfled

 

649

 

Following a further request from bishop Aidan, Hilda moves to the monastery at Hartlepool (Heruteu) in succession to abbess Hieu

 

651

 

Oswiu and Oswin quarrel; Oswin takes refuge in the house of an Earl near Catterick but betrayed and Oswiu orders Oswin to be killed. Oswui’s son Alhfrith (Alcfrid) succeeds Oswin as King of sub-kingdom Deira.

 

651

Aidan dies, Finnan succeeds him as Bishop of Lindisfarne

 

652/3

 

 

Wilfrid leaves Lindisfarne for Kent on route to Lyon and Rome

655

Penda invaded Bernicia and Oswiu’s forces defeat and kill Penda in the Battle of the Winwaed. Oswiu then reunited Northumbria and became overlord of southern England. He annexed northern Mercia but gave southern Mercia to Penda's son Peada.

Wilfrid on return from Rome spends another 3 years in Lyon

655

As a result of a vow made before the battle of Winwaed, Oswiu gives 12 areas of land for the establishment of monasteries. Also dedicates his infant daughter Elfleda to a life in the church. Elfeda taken to Hartlepool under the care of her cousin abbess Hilda.

 

655

 

Alhfrith appoints Abbot Eata from Melrose to form a monastery at Ripon.

 

656

 

 

Peada King of Southern Mercia murdered

657

 

Hilda appointed abbess at a monastery at Streonashalh (later called Whitby by the Vikings) formed at one of the 12 sites given by Oswiu 2 years earlier. Hilda takes her charge Elfleda with her.

 

657

 

 

Revolt by Mercian nobles brings to an end Oswiu's rule in southern England

657/8

 

Wilfrid returns to Northumbria

 

660/1

 

Alhfrith removes Eata and his Irish monks from Ripon and the monastery is handed over to Wilfrid.

 

661

Colman from the monastery at Iona succeeds Finnan as Bishop of Lindisfarne

 

663/4

 

Wilfrid ordained a priest by Gaulish bishop Agilbert

 

664

Synod of Whitby called by King Oswiu. Wilfrid is spokesman for Agilbert and successfully advocates the rejection of Celtic practices. Colman, Bishop of Lindisfarne resigns in protest and returns to Iona

 

664

Oswiu appoints Eata (one of the 12 English boys trained by Aidan) as abbot of Lindisfarne and Tuda, another Irishman of the Celtic tradition, as bishop of Lindisfarne.

 

664

Plague affects southern England and then Northumbria. Bishop Tuda dies from the outbreak.

 

664

 

King Alhfrith sends Wilfrid to the king of Gaul to be consecrated bishop for himself and his people (Bede THE III 28)

 

664/5

 

Wilfrid consecrated at Compičgne.

664/5

 

 

Benedict Biscop’s second journey to Rome in the company of King Alhfrith (or did Oswiu forbid Alhfrith to go?)

666

 

 

On Wilfrid’s return from Gaul, he is shipwrecked on the Sussex coast and attacked by the South Saxons.

666

 

During Wilfrid’s absence Oswiu appoints Chad as bishop of York.

 

666/9

 

Wilfrid returns and lives at Ripon

 

668

 

Theodore (603-90), A Greek monk, appointed archbishop of Canterbury by the pope

669

Archbishop Theodore deposes Chad and Wilfrid restored as primate of Northumbria

 

669-71

 

Wilfrid restores the church at York.

 

670

Oswiu dies and succeeded by his son Ecgfrith

 

671-3

Ecgfrith’s victories over the Picts enlarged Wilfrid’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction into Scotland

 

672/3

 

Wilfrid builds church of St Peter at Ripon

 

673-5

Ecgfrith’s victories over Wulfhere, king of Mercia enlarged Wilfrid’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction into Mercia (Midlands)

 

673

 

Birth of Bede

 

674

 

Queen Ethelthryth grants lands to Wilfrid at Hexham where he builds the church of St Andrews

 

674

 

 

 

676

Cuthbert leaves Lindisfarne to become a hermit on the Inner Farne island.

 

 

677

Theodore divides Wilfrid’s diocese - Bosa (monk from Whitby ) to Deira with his seat at York and Eata (of Melrose and Ripon)  to Bernicia with seat at either Hexham or Lindisfarne. Soon after creates new see at Ripon and invites Eadhead to be first bishop. Wilfrid appeals to Rome. Abbess Hilda sends an ambassador to Rome to support the Archbishop’s decision.

 

677/8

 

 

On route to Rome Wilfrid helps to convert the Frisians

678

 

Bosa (from Hilda’s monastery at Whitby) appointed Bishop of York.

 

679

 

 

Wilfrid arrives in Rome and makes appeal to Pope Agatho and Roman synod.

680

King Ecgfrith refuses to obey the papal mandate and imprisons Wilfrid at Bamburgh

 

 

680

 

Hilda establishes a monastery in Hackness.

A nun living at Hackness, Begu has a vision whilst in the dormitory where she saw the roof open revealing the soul of Hilda as it was carried to Heaven by a company of angels. Begu informed the Prioress of the vision and at daybreak a number of monks arrived from Whitby to confirm the death of Hilda.

 

680

 

November 17 Death of Hilda, abbess of Whitby

 

 

 

 

Wilfrid seeks refuge in Sussex, converting the pagans and founding a monastery at Selsey.

684

Cuthbert persuaded by King Ecgfrith to leave the Inner Farne island and become Bishop of Hexham

 

 

685

 

 

Wilfrid joins King Caedwalla of Wessex who gives him a quarter of his conquests on the Isle of Wight

685

Ecgfrith killed in battle and succeeded by Aldfrith (illegitimate son of Oswiu)

 

 

685

Cuthbert exchanges his see with Eata to become Bishop of Lindisfarne.

 

 

686/7

King Aldfrith recalls Wilfrid who is partially reinstated

 

 

687

Death of Cuthbert who is buried on the right of the alter at St Peter’s church Lindisfarne

 

 

687

 

John appointed bishop of Hexam.

 

691

 

 

Wilfrid demands full reinstatement of his powers as granted by pope Agatho which leads again to his banishment from Northumbria. Becomes bishop of Leicester in Mercia

698

Cuthbert’s remains dug up by the monks at Lindisfarne with the intention of enshrining the relics in a casket. They found the body to be incorrupt and placed it in a wooden reliquary coffin.

 

 

702

 

Archbishop Berhtwald calls the council of Austerfield to decide Wilfrid’s rights. Wilfrid refuses to promise unconditional acceptance of Archbishop’s ruling. Wilfrid officially dispossessed and makes second appeal to Rome.

 

703

 

 

Wilfrid makes his third journey to Rome. Roman synod clear charges against him but refer reinstatement back to the English synod.

 

 

 

 

705

Death of Aldfrith; succeeded by his son Osred

 

 

705

 

English synod meet at the council of Nidd. Wilfrid, no longer insisting on York, is handed Ripon and Hexham and retains monasteries in Mercia.

 

709

 

Death of Wilfrid at Oundle and buried at Ripon

 

793

Vikings destroy the monastery at Lindisfarne

 

 

867

 

Vikings destroy the monastery at Whitby where Hilda was abbess until 680.

 

950

 

First church of St Peter at Ripon destroyed.

 

1069

 

Second church at Ripon destroyed by the Normans

 

1080

 

Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux founds the new Minster at Ripon

 

1093

 

Start of construction of the church at of the Benedictine Monastery at Durham which was to become Durham Cathedral in 1540.

 

1537

Henry III’s Commissioners close the priory at Lindisfarne

 

 

1643

 

Cromwell’s roundheads destroy medieval windows and statues at Ripon Minster

 

1836

 

Ripon Minster becomes cathedral church of newly created diocese from Leeds to Barnard Castle.

 

 

 

 

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