Hadrian’s wall constructed
Council of Nicaea called by Constantine the Great and first ecumenical council of the Christian church, meeting in ancient Nicaea.. Referred to by Wilfrid at the Synod of Whitby
Birth of Columba
Ida first King of Bernicia (547-559)
Death of Ida; son Aethelric becomes King (559-592)
Aelle (559-588) seized Deira from Bernicia
Columba formed Monastery at Iona
Aethelric seized Deira on death of Aelle; Aelle’s son Edwin banished
On death of Aethelric, son Aethelfrith rules both kingdoms (592-616). Aethelfrith marries Acha, daughter of Aelle; his brother-in-law Edwin remains banished.
Pope St Gregory I the Great commissioned Augustine to establish a mission in England under the protection of Brunhild
Death of Columba
Conversion of King Aethelberht I of Kent to Christianity.
Roman monk Paulinus sent to England to assist Augustine
Birth of Hilda to Hereric and Breguswith in exile.
Edwin kills Aethelfrith in a battle at the river Idle near Leeds and returns to rule both kingdoms (616-632)
Aethelfrith’s sons Eanfrith, Oswold and Oswiu seek refuge in Scotland and brought up at Iona by the Celtic monks
Edwin’s first wife had died and he marries Aethelburgh, daughter of the King of Kent who brings with her Paulinus
Edwin and Aethelburgh have a daughter Eanfled (who is later to marry Oswiu)
Edwin and a large number of his court including great niece Hilda baptised by Paulinus on 12 April in the river at York.
Birth of Biscop Baducing (Benedict Biscop)
Edwin killed in battle against the combined armies of Cadwallon of Gwynedd and King Penda of Mercia. Queen Aethelburgh, her daughter Eanfled (and Hilda?) and Paulinus flee back to Kent.
Eanfrith seizes power but killed by Cadwallon 633
Osric, son of Aelfric and cousin of Edwin seizes power but killed by Cadwallon 633
Oswold returns to defeat and kill Cadwallon near Hexham and rules both kingdoms (633-642)
Oswold summons Aidan from Iona to form a monastery at Lindisfarne
Oswold killed in battle with Penda, King of Mercia at Maserfelth near Oswestry
Oswiu, brother of Oswold rules Bernicia but subordinate to Penda
Oswin, son of Osric rules Deira as sub-kingdom to Bernicia
Oswiu marries his cousin Eanfled, daughter of Edwin and Aethelburgh
Hilda about to join her widowed sister Heresuid at a French monastery at Chelles and spends a year at the court of her nephew Aldwulf, king of the East Angles preparing for the crossing
Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, intervenes before Hilda crosses to France and gives her a plot of land south of the Tyne (possibly South Shields) to form a monastery. Hilda stays for one year
Wilfrid enters Lindisfarne monastery as patron of Queen Eanfled
Following a further request from bishop Aidan, Hilda moves to the monastery at Hartlepool (Heruteu) in succession to abbess Hieu
Oswiu and Oswin quarrel; Oswin takes refuge in the house of an Earl near Catterick but betrayed and Oswiu orders Oswin to be killed. Oswui’s son Alhfrith (Alcfrid) succeeds Oswin as King of sub-kingdom Deira.
Aidan dies, Finnan succeeds him as Bishop of Lindisfarne
Wilfrid leaves Lindisfarne for Kent on route to Lyon and Rome
Penda invaded Bernicia and Oswiu’s forces defeat and kill Penda in the Battle of the Winwaed. Oswiu then reunited Northumbria and became overlord of southern England. He annexed northern Mercia but gave southern Mercia to Penda’s son Peada.
Wilfrid on return from Rome spends another 3 years in Lyon
As a result of a vow made before the battle of Winwaed, Oswiu gives 12 areas of land for the establishment of monasteries. Also dedicates his infant daughter Elfleda to a life in the church. Elfeda taken to Hartlepool under the care of her cousin abbess Hilda.
Alhfrith appoints Abbot Eata from Melrose to form a monastery at Ripon.
Peada King of Southern Mercia murdered
Hilda appointed abbess at a monastery at Streonashalh (later called Whitby by the Vikings) formed at one of the 12 sites given by Oswiu 2 years earlier. Hilda takes her charge Elfleda with her.
Revolt by Mercian nobles brings to an end Oswiu’s rule in southern England
Wilfrid returns to Northumbria
Alhfrith removes Eata and his Irish monks from Ripon and the monastery is handed over to Wilfrid.
Colman from the monastery at Iona succeeds Finnan as Bishop of Lindisfarne
Wilfrid ordained a priest by Gaulish bishop Agilbert
Synod of Whitby called by King Oswiu. Wilfrid is spokesman for Agilbert and successfully advocates the rejection of Celtic practices. Colman, Bishop of Lindisfarne resigns in protest and returns to Iona
Oswiu appoints Eata (one of the 12 English boys trained by Aidan) as abbot of Lindisfarne and Tuda, another Irishman of the Celtic tradition, as bishop of Lindisfarne.
Plague affects southern England and then Northumbria. Bishop Tuda dies from the outbreak.
King Alhfrith sends Wilfrid to the king of Gaul to be consecrated bishop for himself and his people (Bede THE III 28)
Wilfrid consecrated at Compiègne.
Benedict Biscop’s second journey to Rome in the company of King Alhfrith (or did Oswiu forbid Alhfrith to go?)
On Wilfrid’s return from Gaul, he is shipwrecked on the Sussex coast and attacked by the South Saxons.
During Wilfrid’s absence Oswiu appoints Chad as bishop of York.
Wilfrid returns and lives at Ripon
Theodore (603-90), A Greek monk, appointed archbishop of Canterbury by the pope
Archbishop Theodore deposes Chad and Wilfrid restored as primate of Northumbria
Wilfrid restores the church at York.
Oswiu dies and succeeded by his son Ecgfrith
Ecgfrith’s victories over the Picts enlarged Wilfrid’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction into Scotland
Wilfrid builds church of St Peter at Ripon
Ecgfrith’s victories over Wulfhere, king of Mercia enlarged Wilfrid’s ecclesiastical jurisdiction into Mercia (Midlands)
Birth of Bede
Queen Ethelthryth grants lands to Wilfrid at Hexham where he builds the church of St Andrews
Cuthbert leaves Lindisfarne to become a hermit on the Inner Farne island.
Theodore divides Wilfrid’s diocese – Bosa (monk from Whitby ) to Deira with his seat at York and Eata (of Melrose and Ripon) to Bernicia with seat at either Hexham or Lindisfarne. Soon after creates new see at Ripon and invites Eadhead to be first bishop. Wilfrid appeals to Rome. Abbess Hilda sends an ambassador to Rome to support the Archbishop’s decision.
On route to Rome Wilfrid helps to convert the Frisians
Bosa (from Hilda’s monastery at Whitby) appointed Bishop of York.
Wilfrid arrives in Rome and makes appeal to Pope Agatho and Roman synod.
King Ecgfrith refuses to obey the papal mandate and imprisons Wilfrid at Bamburgh
Hilda establishes a monastery in Hackness.
A nun living at Hackness, Begu has a vision whilst in the dormitory where she saw the roof open revealing the soul of Hilda as it was carried to Heaven by a company of angels. Begu informed the Prioress of the vision and at daybreak a number of monks arrived from Whitby to confirm the death of Hilda.
November 17 Death of Hilda, abbess of Whitby
Wilfrid seeks refuge in Sussex, converting the pagans and founding a monastery at Selsey.
Cuthbert persuaded by King Ecgfrith to leave the Inner Farne island and become Bishop of Hexham
Wilfrid joins King Caedwalla of Wessex who gives him a quarter of his conquests on the Isle of Wight
Ecgfrith killed in battle and succeeded by Aldfrith (illegitimate son of Oswiu)
Cuthbert exchanges his see with Eata to become Bishop of Lindisfarne.
King Aldfrith recalls Wilfrid who is partially reinstated
Death of Cuthbert who is buried on the right of the alter at St Peter’s church Lindisfarne
John appointed bishop of Hexam.
Wilfrid demands full reinstatement of his powers as granted by pope Agatho which leads again to his banishment from Northumbria. Becomes bishop of Leicester in Mercia
Cuthbert’s remains dug up by the monks at Lindisfarne with the intention of enshrining the relics in a casket. They found the body to be incorrupt and placed it in a wooden reliquary coffin.
Archbishop Berhtwald calls the council of Austerfield to decide Wilfrid’s rights. Wilfrid refuses to promise unconditional acceptance of Archbishop’s ruling. Wilfrid officially dispossessed and makes second appeal to Rome.
Wilfrid makes his third journey to Rome. Roman synod clear charges against him but refer reinstatement back to the English synod.
Death of Aldfrith; succeeded by his son Osred
English synod meet at the council of Nidd. Wilfrid, no longer insisting on York, is handed Ripon and Hexham and retains monasteries in Mercia.
Death of Wilfrid at Oundle and buried at Ripon
Vikings destroy the monastery at Lindisfarne
Vikings destroy the monastery at Whitby where Hilda was abbess until 680.
First church of St Peter at Ripon destroyed.
Second church at Ripon destroyed by the Normans
Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux founds the new Minster at Ripon
Start of construction of the church at of the Benedictine Monastery at Durham which was to become Durham Cathedral in 1540.
Henry III’s Commissioners close the priory at Lindisfarne
Cromwell’s roundheads destroy medieval windows and statues at Ripon Minster
Ripon Minster becomes cathedral church of newly created diocese from Leeds to Barnard Castle.